Carl J. Zylak, MD, FRCPC ; William R. Eyler, MD ; David L. Spizarny, MD ; Chad H. Stone, MD
Encountering a developmental lung anomaly in the adult can be a challenge, as the abnormality may be mistaken for something more sinister. The common anomalies encountered are classified into three broad categories: bronchopulmonary (lung bud) anomalies, vascular anomalies, and combined lung and vascular anomalies. The imaging features of these developmental anomalies at conventional radiography, ventilation-perfusion lung nuclear scanning, angiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging are useful in differential diagnosis of thoracic lesions. Lung bud anomalies include agenesis, congenital bronchial atresia, congenital lobar emphysema, congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation, pulmonary bronchogenic cysts, tracheal or pig bronchus, and accessory cardiac bronchus. Vascular anomalies include interruption or absence of a main pulmonary artery, anomalous origin of the left pulmonary artery from the right, anomalous pulmonary venous drainage (partial or complete), and pulmonary arteriovenous malformation. Combined lung and vascular anomalies include the hypogenetic lung (scimitar) syndrome and bronchopulmonary sequestration, both intralobar and extralobar.