Acute Parenchymal Lung Disease in Immunocompetent Patients

Acute Parenchymal Lung Disease in Immunocompetent Patients

Noriyuki Tomiyama ; Nestor L. Müller ; Takeshi Johkoh ; Osamu Honda ; Naoki Mihara ; Takenori Kozuka ; Seiki Hamada ; Hironobu Nakamura ; Masanori Akira ; Kazuya Ichikado

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether acute parenchymal lung diseases can be differentiated on the basis of the pattern and distribution of abnormalities revealed on high-resolution CT.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: High-resolution CT scans of 90 patients with acute parenchymal lung diseases (19 with bacterial pneumonia, 13 with mycoplasmal pneumonia, 21 with acute interstitial pneumonia, 18 with hypersensitivity pneumonitis, 10 with acute eosinophilic pneumonia, and nine with pulmonary hemorrhage) were independently assessed by two observes who had no knowledge of clinical or pathologic data. The observers recorded abnormalities, their first-choice diagnosis, and their degree of confidence in their first-choice diagnosis.

RESULTS: The two observers made a correct first-choice diagnosis in an average of 55 (61%) of 90 cases. Correct first-choice diagnosis was made in 50% of cases of bacterial pneumonia, 62% of mycoplasmal pneumonia, 90% of acute interstitial pneumonia, 72% of hypersensitivity pneumonitis, 30% of acute eosinophilic pneumonia, and 28% of pulmonary hemorrhage. CT findings allowed distinction between infectious and noninfectious causes in 81 (90%) of 90 cases.

CONCLUSION: High-resolution CT is helpful in the differential diagnosis of infectious from noninfectious acute parenchymal lung disease. However, high-resolution CT is of limited value in making a specific diagnosis.