David A. Lynch, MD ; William D. Travis, MD ; Nestor L. Müller, MD, PhD ; Jeffrey R. Galvin, MD ; David M. Hansell, MD ; Philippe A. Grenier, MD ; Talmadge E. King, Jr, MD
Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias comprise usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP), nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP), respiratory bronchiolitis–associated interstitial lung disease (RB-ILD), cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP), acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP), and lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (LIP). Each of these entities has a typical imaging and histologic pattern, although in practice the imaging patterns may be variable. Each entity may be idiopathic or may be secondary to a recognizable cause such as collagen vascular disease or inhalational exposure. The diagnosis of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia is made by means of correlation of clinical, imaging, and pathologic features. The characteristic computed tomographic (CT) features of UIP are predominantly basal and peripheral reticular pattern with honeycombing and traction bronchiectasis. NSIP is characterized by predominantly basal ground-glass opacity and/or reticular pattern, often with traction bronchiectasis. DIP and RB-ILD are smoking-related lung diseases characterized by ground-glass opacity and centrilobular nodules. COP is characterized by patchy peripheral or peribronchovascular consolidation. AIP manifests as diffuse lung consolidation and ground-glass opacity. LIP is associated with a CT pattern of ground-glass opacity sometimes associated with perivascular cysts.